IPACC aims to offer support in a variety of different ways. On this page you will find resource links for physical activity, and health and wellness programs outside of IPACC.

IPACC Long Term Athlete and Participant Development Model

The Indigenous Physical Activity & Cultural Circle (IPACC) is responsible for the alignment of Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) for the Canadian sport system. IPACC however refers to the Canadian sport system LTAD model as the Long-Term Athlete and Participant Development model (LTAPD).

IPACC is pleased to announce the release of our Long-Term Athlete and Participant Development Model (LTAPD). When physical activity is performed with cultural ties and recognition, these impacts have the potential to extend well beyond the commonly recognized health and wellness benefits associated with sport, recreation, fitness and traditional activities. The IPACC LTAPD model provides the opportunity to exercise this intention – to transform our lifelong dream in to action of having more active Indigenous communities for all stages of life.

The IPACC LTAPD Model identifies 9 stages for cultivation of physical activity for life. Physical activity for Indigenous people can be sport, recreation, fitness and traditional activities. Physical activity is a valuable community asset, and one that impacts the community as well as its members.

We welcome all to use this resource and hope that it is beneficial for growth in all aspects of life. When we live with a positive life course, we build stronger and more engaged communities.


The following is a list of references that could be reviewed regarding Indigenous Sports, recreation, fitness and/or traditional activities. This list is not complete; therefore, please do not hesitate to forward any other interesting references to be included on this list by sending us an email.

The University of Saskatchewan also has an Indigenous Studies Portal that has a great list of references with research about Indigenous physical activity.

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Anand, S. S., Davis, D., Ahmed, R., Jacobs, R., Xie, C., Hill, A., … Yusuf, S. (2007). A
family-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in an aboriginal community
in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98(6), 447-452.

Baillie, C. P. T., Galaviz, K. I., Emiry, K., Bruner, M. W., Bruner, B. G., & Lévesque, L. (2016).
Physical activity interventions to promote positive youth development among indigenous
youth: a RE-AIM review. Translational Behavioural Medicine, 7(1), 43-51.

Blodgett, A. T., Schinke, R. J., Fisher, L. A., George, C. W., Peltier, D., Ritchie, S., & Pickard,
P. (2008). From practice to praxis: Community-based strategies for aboriginal youth
sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 32(4), 393-414. Retrieved from

Brooks-Cleator, L. A. & Giles, A. R. (2016). Culturally relevant physical activity through elders
territories, Canada. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 31(4), 449-470. Retrieved

Brooks-Cleator, L. A. & Giles, A. R. (2016). Physical activity policy for older adults in the
northwest territories, Canada: Gaps and opportunities for gains. Arctic, 69(2), 169-176.
Retrieved from:

Canuto, K. J., Spagnoletti, B., McDermott, R. A., & Cargo, M. (2013). Factors influencing
attendance in a structured physical activity program for aboriginal and Torres Strait
islander women in an urban setting: A mixed methods process evaluation. International
Journal for Equity in Health, 12(1) doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-12-11

Cinelli, R. L., & O’Dea, J. A. (2009). Body image and obesity among Australian adolescents
from Indigenous and Anglo-European backgrounds: Implications for health promotion
and obesity prevention among Aboriginal youth. Health Education Research, 24(6),

Daniela, M., Greenac, L. W., Marionb, S. A., Gambled, D., Herberte, C. P., Hertzmanb, C., &
Shepsb, S. B. (1999). Effectiveness of community-directed diabetes prevention and
control in a rural Aboriginal population in British Columbia, Canada. Social Science &
Medicine, 48(6), 815-832.

Dean, H. J., Young, T. K., Flett, B., & Steiman, P. W. (1998). Screening for type-2 diabetes in
aboriginal children in northern Canada. The Lancet, 352(9139), 1523-1524.

Fahlén, J., & Skille, E. A. (2016). State sport policy for indigenous sport: Inclusive ambitions
and exclusive coalitions. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 9(1), 173-187.

Fitch, N., Ma’ayah, F., Harms, C., & Guilfoyle, A. (2017). Sport, educational engagement and
positive youth development: Reflections of Aboriginal former youth sports participants.
The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 46(1), 23-33.

Foulds, H. J. A., Bredin, S. S. D., & Warburton, D. E R. (2012). An evaluation of the physical
activity and health status of British Columbian aboriginal populations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37, 127-137.

Foulds, H.J., Warburton, D.E., & Bredin, S.S. (2013). A systematic review of physical activity
levels in native American populations in Canada and the United States in the last 50
years. Obesity Reviews, 14(7), 593-603. doi: 10.1111/obr.12032

Foulds, H. J. A. (2011). The effectiveness of community based physical activity interventions
with aboriginal peoples. Preventative medicine, 53(6), 411-416.

Gates, M., Hanning, R., Gates, A., Stephen, J., Fehst, A., & Tsuji, L. (2016). Physical activity
and fitness of first nations youth in a remote and isolated northern Ontario community: A
needs assessment. Journal of Community Health, 41(1), 46-56.
doi: 10.1007/s10900-

Gormley, B. (2012). Fighting diabetes in Aboriginal communities with urban poling. The
Aboriginal Nurse, 8-9.

Gracey, M., Bridge, E., Martin, D., Jones, T., Spargo, R. M., Shephard, M., & Davis, E.
A. (2006). An Aboriginal-driven program to prevent, control and manage nutrition-
related ‘lifestyle’ diseases including diabetes. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition,
15(2), 178.

Halas, J., McRae, H., & Petherick, L. (2012). Advice for physical education teachers from
aboriginal youth: Become an ally. Physical & Health Education Journal, 78(3), 6-11.
Retrieved from

Halas, J. (2004). The experience of physical education for aboriginal youth: The unfulfilled
potential of physical education. Physical & Health Education Journal, 70(2), 43-44.

Haman, F., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Batal, M., Imbeault, P., Blais, J. M., & Robidoux, M. A. (2010).
Obesity and type 2 diabetes in northern Canada’s remote First Nations communities: The
dietary dilemma. International Journal of Obesity, 34(2), 24-31.
Hogan, L., Bengoechea, E. G., Salsberg, J., Jacobs, J., King, M., & Macaulay, A. (2014).
Using a participatory approach to the development of a school-based physical activity
policy in an indigenous community. Journal of School Health, 84(12), 786-792.

Katzmarzyk, P. (2008). Obesity and physical activity among aboriginal Canadians. Obesity
Society (Silver Spring Md), 16(1), 184-190. doi: 0.1038/oby.2007.51

Kerpan, S., & Humbert, L. (2015). Playing together: The physical activity beliefs and behaviours
of urban aboriginal youth. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 12(10), 1409-1413. doi:

King, R. C. (2006). Introduction: Other people’s games: Indigenous peoples and sport in North
America. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 23(2), 131-137.

Kiran, A., & Knights, J. (2010). Traditional indigenous games promoting physical activity and =
cultural connectedness in primary schools—cluster randomised control trial. Health
Promotion Journal of Australia, 21(2), 149-151.

Lévesque, L., Janssen, I., & Xu, F. (2015). Correlates of physical activity in first nations youth
residing in first nations and northern communities in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public
Health, 106(2), 29-35. Retrieved from

McHugh, T. F., Coppola, A. M., Holt, N. L., & Andersen, C. (2015). ‘Sport is community:’ An
exploration of urban Aboriginal peoples’ meanings of community within the context of
sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 18, 75-84.

Mendham, A. E., Duffield, R., Marino, F., & Coutts, A. J. (2015). A 12-week sports-based
exercise programme for inactive Indigenous Australian men improved clinical risk
factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Science and Medicine in =
Sport,18(4), 438-443.

Millar, K., & Dean, H. J. (2012). Developmental origins of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal youth
in Canada: It is more than diet and exercise. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 1-7.
doi: 10.1155/2012/127452

Morris, N. F., Stewart, S., Riley, M. D., Maguire, G. P. (2016). The Indigenous Australian
malnutrition project: The burden and impact of malnutrition in Aboriginal Australian and
Torres Strait Islander hospital inpatients, and validation of a malnutrition screening tool
for use in hospitals; Study rationale and protocol. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-10.

Nguyen, H. D., Chitturi, S., Maple-Brown, L. J. (2016). Management of diabetes in Indigenous
communities from the Australian Aboriginal population. Internal Medicine Journal,
46(11), 1252-1259.

Paraschak, V., & Thompson, K. (2013). Finding strength(s): Insights on aboriginal physical
cultural practices in Canada. Sport in Society, 17(8), 1046-1060.

Péloquin, C., Doering, T., Alley, S., & Rebar, A. (2017). The facilittors and barriers of physical
activity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander regional sport participants.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(5), 474-479.

Pressick, E. L., Gray, M. A., Cole, R. L., Burkett, B. J. (2016). A systematic review on research
into the effectiveness of group based sport and exercise programs designed for
Indigenous adults. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(9), 726-732.

Reeve, R., Church, J., Haas, M., Bradford, W., & Viney, R. (2014). Factors that drive the gap in
diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 38(5), 459-465.

Rice, K., Hiwi, B. T., Zwarenstein, M., Lavalles, B., Barre, D. E., & Harris, S. B. (2016). Best
practices for the prevention and management of diabetes and obesity-related chronic
disease among Indigenous peoples in Canada: A review. Canadian Journal of Diabetes,
40(3), 216-225.

Rynne, S. (2016). Exploring the pedagogical possibilities of Indigenous sport-for-development
programmes using a socio-personal approach. Sport, Education and Society, 21(4), 605-

Saylor, K. (2005). Risk reduction for type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal children in Canada.
Paediatrics & Child Health, 10(1), 49-52.

Schinke, R. (2010). The role of families in youth sport programming in a Canadian aboriginal
reserve. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 7(2), 156-166.

Street, J., Cox, H., Lopes, E., Motlik, J., & Hanson, L. (2018). Supporting youth wellbeing with
a focus on eating well and being active: Views from an Aboriginal community
deliberative forum. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 42(2), 127-

Sukala, W. R., Page, R., Lonsdale, C., Lys, I., Rowlands, D., Krebs, J.,…Cheema, B. S. (2013).
Exercise improves quality of life in Indigenous Polynesian peoples with type 2 diabetes
and visceral obesity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(5), 699-707.

Tang, K., & Jardine, C. G. (2016). Our way of life: Importance of indigenous culture and
tradition to physical activity practices. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 11(1),

Tomlin, D., Naylor, P. J., McKay, H., Zorzi, A., Mitchell, M., & Panagiotopoulos, C. (2012).
The impact of action schools! BC on the health of aboriginal children and youth living in
rural and remote communities in British Columbia. International Journal of Circumpolar
Health, 71(1). Retrieved from

Towns, C., Cook, M., Rysdale, L., & Wilk, P. (2014). Healthy weight interventions in aboriginal
children and youth: A review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and
Research, 75(3), 125-131.

Wahi, G., Wilson, J., Miller, R., Analin, R., McDonald, S., Morrison, K. M., … Anand, S. S.
(2013). Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): A prospective cohort study of early life
determinant of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada.
BMC Public Health, 13(1), 608-618.

Wang, Z., & Hoy, W. E. (2004). Body size measurements as predictors of type 2 diabetes in
Aboriginal people. International Journal of Obesity, 28(12), 1580-1584.

Willows, N. D., Hanley, A. J. G., & Delormier, T. (2012). A socioecological framework to
understand weight-related issues in aboriginal children in Canada. Applied Physiology,
Nutrition, Metabolism, 37(1), 1-13.

Yoshitaka, I., & Judith, B. G. (2006). Culturally meaningful leisure as a way of coping with
stress among Aboriginal individuals with diabetes. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(3),

Young, T. K., Reading, J., Elias, B., & O’Neil, J. D. (2000). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in
Canada’s First Nations: Status of an epidemic in progress. Canadian Medical Association
Journal, 163(5), 561-566.

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Air Quality Toolkit

The Indigenous Physical Activity & Cultural Circle (IPACC) team, in partnership with Lytton First Nation, the University of British Columbia, and the Indigenous Studies in Kinesiology Program developed the Indigenous Educational Toolkit for Understanding Air Quality & the Impacts on Health and Well-Being. This educational toolkit aims to assist Indigenous communities to better understand current quality of outdoor air and its effects on wholistic health and wellbeing.

Throughout this toolkit, tips are shared to provide recommendations that minimize health risks and improve the quality of outside air. There are also worksheets created that have topics for sharing circle discussions designed to ignite dialogue about the needs of community members and how to address them. Online websites are shared to provide relevant resources as well, such as the Air Quality Health Index mobile application.